Q : 1    HOW SHOULD WE TAKE CARE OF OUR EYE ?
Q : 2    HOW CAN ONE TAKE PROPER CARE OF EYE OF CHILDREN - OUR FUTURE GENERATION ?
- Proper care of eyes can be done by protection of our eyes especially while out in sunlight or dust by wearing goggles.
- Washing eyes with normal clean water at least 3-4 times/day.
- Not to use dirty fingers, dirty handkerchief, and makeup kits.
- Watch television from at least 3-meter distance. Depending on the size of screen of TV, the distance may be altered.
- Never keep complete darkness in the room while watching TV as it strains the eyes.
- While reading for near, keep the reading material at least at a distance of 33 cm. Proper amount of light should come from behind. Less light or reading in a moving vehicle or reading while lying down position is not advisable.
- Balanced food is must and proper amount of green vegetables that is rich in vitamin A is necessary.
- If some foreign body falls in eye, then instead of rubbing the eyes, wash the eyes with clean water. Still if the foreign body persists, immediately contact the eye surgeon. Donít do any self remedies.
Q : 3    HOW IS THE GENERAL HEALTH OF A PATIENT RELATED TO EYES ?
- It is recommended that children should have their first eye checkup before admission in school that is at about 4-5 years.
- If the child is rubbing the eyes, blinking the eyes often, reading or watching TV from short distance, not able to copy from blackboard in school, converging the eyes frequently, complaining of watering or headache, then those are the warning signals.
- As the load of homework, usage of modern gadgets like video games, TV, computers increases, their eyes should be checked every yearly.
- If there is any heredity of specs or any eye diseases in the parents or maternal or paternal family members, this again calls for detailed eye checkup.
- Nutrients rich in Vitamin A are recommended.
- Playing with sharp objects or exposure to hazardous objects like firecrackers should be banned.
For good functioning of eyes, general health has to be in a good condition. Uncontrolled diabetes can cause early retinal/vitreous hemorrhage. Fluctuation of blood pressure or sudden increase can lead to subconjunctival hemorrhage, paresis/paralysis of eye muscles and thereby squinting and diplopia. Even irreversible blindness can occur from central retinal/ vein occlusion. Excessive intake of hard drinks can lead to optic atrophy causing blindness.
Q : 4    WHICH TYPE OF FOOD SHOULD BE TAKEN TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH OF EYES ?
Foods rich in Vitamin A are advocated for the smooth functioning of eyes. Leafy vegetables like spinach, cabbage, lettuce and other like carrots are beneficial. Lack of vitamin A causes night blindness. One would be unable to visualize accurately during dim light and has xerosis of conjunctiva (dryness of conjunctiva), Bitotís spots, and eventually corneal melting= keratomalacia in late stages resulting in blindness.
Q : 5    WHAT IS CATARACT AND WHEN SHOULD BE OPERATED ?
Due to aging, the natural lens becomes less transparent due to water accumulation and chemical reaction which is known as cataract. There is no hard and fast rule when the cataract should be operated. When one finds difficulty in oneís daily activities due to diminished vision due to cataract, he/she can get operated. Diplopia, Glare, intolerance to light or cataract due to trauma is the other indications.
Q : 6    WHAT IS IOL AND WHAT ARE ITS ADVANTAGES ?
IOL= intraocular lens implant as its name suggests is an artificial implant made of polymethylmethacrylate/silicone/acrylic material which is kept in the eye in place of cataractous lens after its removal. Because of it one can wear thin glasses and the image also appears normal.
Q : 7    CAN YOU ENLIGHTEN ABOUT GLAUCOMA ?
Glaucoma is popularly known as sneak thief of sight leading to blindness which is preventable if regular eye checkups are done. With the advent of plenty of new medicines, surgery is less recommended and the sight loss can be prevented.
Q : 8    HOW FREQUENTLY EYE CHECKUP SHOULD BE DONE ?
First eye checkup is recommended at age of 4-5 years. If there is any history of refractive error, squint, congenital cataract, congenital glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, the eye checkup should be repeated as per eye surgeonís advice. In event of headache, eye pain, redness, watering, foreign body sensation, dimness of vision one should immediately consult the eye doctor. After age of 40 years, every 1-2 yearly checkup is recommended for near vision correction, glaucoma, advancing lens changes. In case of any systemic disease like diabetes, hypertension, thyroid, checkup of eyes is recommended as per advice of the doctor.
Q : 9    CAN YOU POINT OUT SOME COMMON AILMENTS AFECTING EYES FOR WHICH ONE SHOULD SEEK THE HELP OF EYE DOCTOR ?
Conjunctivitis, chalazion/stye, foreign body sensation, refractive errors, headache, watering are the common ailments for which the Ophthalmologist is referred. Self medications should not be done.
Q : 10    I SOMETIMES VISUALIZES SOME THREAD OR BLACK WAVY PARTICLES IN FRONT OF EYE. I RUB MY EYES BUT IT DOES NOT GO AWAY. WHAT IS IT ?
These is known as floaters. Floaters are actually tiny clumps of gel or cells inside the vitreous= the clear jelly like fluid that fills inside the eye. Although the floaters appear in front of eye, they are actually floating in the vitreous fluid inside the eye. Infact they are the shadows of the objects casted on retina.
Q : 11    WHAT CAUSES FLOATERS ?
Due to aging/trauma the vitreous gel may shrink forming strands inside the eye, causing posterior vitreous detachment. It appears in high myopic, cataract operated patients, patients who have undergone YAG laser or because of some inflammation in the eye.
Q : 12    WHEN SHOULD ONE SEE DOCTOR FOR COMPLAIN OF FLOATERS AND WHAT TREATEMENT HAD TO BE DONE ?
Floaters can be very frustrating as they can be in the way of clear vision and they move according to the movement of the eye. Some may remain and on has to neglect it as they may sometimes fade over time. But if one notices new one or visualizes sudden flashes of light/ loss of side vision, one should immediately have eye examination done. Flashes of light appear as wavy lines and usually are caused by spasm of blood. Improvement of general health also plays a vital role.
Q : 13    WHAT IS RETINAL DETACHMENT ?
Retina which is the light sensitive layer is attached to the inner surface of the eye. If there is a tear/ hole, fluid may seep underneath which weakens the attachment.
Q : 14    WHO CAN GET RETINAL DETACHMENT AND WHAT ARE THE SYMPTONS ?
Usually the patients are short-sighted=high myopic or have history of trauma. Patient can present with bright flashes of light or new floaters, shadow in the vision or dimness of vision.
Q : 15    WHAT IS THE TREATMENT ?
Evaluation of retinal holes when detected early can be sealed with laser/ freezing treatment. Depending on the duration and extent of retinal detachment, treatment can be planned by surgery. If the sight cannot be restored, resurgery may be required. Variety of low visual aids can be of help.